sponsors


References

Accenture. 2000. Reconnecting Europe.

ADF (African Development Forum). 1999. Globalization and the Information Economy: Challenges and Opportunities for Africa. [http://www/un/org/Depts/eca/adf/infoeconomy.htm]. 2 April 2001.

Advisory Committee on Telecommunications. 1998. Report of the Advisory Committee on Telecommunications to the Minister of Public Enterprise.

Analysys. 2000. A Toolkit for Networking Progress in Developing Countries.
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Analysys. 2000. The Network Revolution and the Developing World: Final Report for World Bank and infoDev. [http://www.infodev.org/library/400.doc].

Barr, David. 1999. "Integrated Rural Development Through Telecommunications." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0029.htm]. 14 November 2000 .

Barshefsky, Charlene. 2001. "Trade Policy for a Networked World." Foreign Affairs. March/April 2001.

Bedi, Arjun. 1999. The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Economic Development: A Partial Survey. ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy. Bonn. [http://www.zef.de/download/zef_dp/zef_dp7-99.pdf ].

Bremner, B. and Ihlwan, M. 2000. "Korea's Digital Quest." Business Week. 25 September.

Burkhart, Foster, Goodman, and Press. 1999. “The Internet in India and China.”
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Chowdhury, Nuimuddin. 2000. Information Revolution, Foreign Direct Investment and Globalization: A Blue-print for Youth Employment. Prepared for the Century Foundation & Youth Employment Summit.

CID (Center for International Development at Harvard University). Information Technologies Group. 2000. Readiness for the Networked World: A Guide for Developing Countries.CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency). 1997. "ICTs and Development: Testing a Framework for Evaluation." [http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca]. 10 January 2001.

CSIS (Center for Strategic & International Studies). 2000. "A Roadmap to the Global Information Infrastructure." [http://www.giic.org/pubs/pgiiroadmap.html].

Daly, John. 1999. "Measuring Impacts of the Internet in the Developing World." IMP: Information Impacts Magazine. May 1999. [http://www.cisp.org/imp/may_99/daly/05_99daly.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Diez-Picazo, Gonzalo F. 1999. An Analysis of International Internet Diffusion. Submitted to the Technology and Policy Program of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Droege, P. (ed.). 1997. IT 2000: Singapore's Vision of an Intelligent Island. Intelligent Environments.

Economist Newspaper Group. 2000. "Falling Through the Net?" The Economist, 23 September.

Economist Newspaper Group. 2001. "The New Economy: Only the Beginning." The Economist, 29 January.

Economist Newspaper Group. 2000. "What the Internet Cannot Do." The Economist, 19 August.

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of the United Nations). 2000. The Role of Information Technology in the Context of a Knowledge-Based Economy.

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of the United Nations). 2000. "Report of the Meeting of the High-level Panel of Experts on Information and Communication Technology." 17-20 April 2000, New York.

Ernberg, Johan. 1999. "Telecommunications for Sustainable Development." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0028.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Evans, P. and Wurster, T. 2000. Blown to Bits: How the New Economics of Information Transforms Strategy. Harvard Business School Press.

Goldstein, Andrea. 2000. "E-Commerce for Development: Prospects and Policy Issues."

Graham, Edward. 1998. The Case of FDI in the Telecommunications Sector.

Hachigian , Nina. 2001. "China's Cyber Strategy." Foreign Affairs. March/April 2001.

Haltiwanger, J. and Jarmin, R. 2000. The Macroeconomic Perspective: Measuring the Digital Economy.

Hammond, Allen. 2001. "Digitally Empowered Development." Foreign Affairs. March/April 2001.

Hargittai, Eszter. 1999. "Weaving the Western Web: Explaining Differences in Internet Connectivity Among OECD Countries." Telecommunications Policy. Volume 23.

Harvard Magazine Roundtable. 2000. "The World's Poor." November-December 2000.

Heeks, Richard. 2000. "Lessons for Development from the New Economy." University of Manchester.

Holderness, Mike. 1999. "A Promising Solution Fraught with Peril." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/DOdirect/DOengB01.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Hudson, Heather E. 1995. Economic and Social Benefits of Rural Telecommunications: A Report to the World Bank.

Hundley, R. 1999. The Global Course of the Information Revolution: Political, Economic, and Social Consequences.

ICC (International Chamber of Commerce). 2000. "A Global Action Plan for Electronic Commerce, Prepared by Business with Recommendations for Governments." [http://www.uscib.org/policy/actplan.htm]. 6 February 2001.

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2001. World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy.

IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2000. "Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?" Issues Brief for 2000. [http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm]. 28 November 2000.

IMF/ OECD/ UN/ WB (Partnerships in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century). 2000. A Better World for All: Progress Towards the International Development Goals. Washington, D.C. [http://www.paris21.org/betterworld].

InfoDev (Information for Development Program). World Bank. 2000. Annual Report 2000. Washington, D.C.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 1999. Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development. Geneva.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 1999. Annual Statistical Yearbook. Geneva.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 2000. ITU Internet Country Case Studies: Nepal, Uganda, Bolivia, Hungary, Egypt and Singapore. [http://www.itu.int/ti/casestudies].

Jensen, Mike and Richardson, Don. 1999. "Wireless Weaves to Lessen the Gaps in Rural Telecommunications Coverage in Africa." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0040.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Kenny, C. and Hawkins, R. 2000. Economic Internet Toolkit for African Policy Makers: An Africa Internet Forum, UNECA and infoDev Project. [http://www.infodev.org/projects/finafcon.htm]. 9 February 2001.

Kenny, C. and Williams, D. 2001. "What Do We Know About Economic Growth? Or, Why Don't We Know Very Much?" World Development. Volume 29.

Kenny, Navas-Sabater, and Qiang. 2000. ICTs and Poverty. [http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/chapters/ict/ict0829.pdf].

Kraemer, K. and Dedrick, J. 1999. “National Policies for the Information Age: IT and Economic Development.” Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations. University of California. [http://www.crito.uci.edu/itr/publications/pdf/natl-policiesio-99.pdf]

Labelle, R. 2001. President. Information Technology and Management Practices for Development. Canada. Consultation.

Macharia, Mugo. 2000. "The Global Digital Divide: An Egyptian Perspective." Digital Divide Network. [http://digitaldividenetwork.org/giic_aip.adp]. 14 November 2000.

Maitland, Carleen. 1998. "Global Diffusion of Interactive Networks: The Impact of Culture." Cultural Attitudes Towards Communications and Technology. University of Sydney, Australia.

Mansell, R. and When, U. (eds). 1998. Knowledge Societies: Information Technologies for Sustainable Development. Oxford University Press. [http://www.susx.ac.uk/spru/ink/knowledge.html].

McConnell, Paul. 1996. "Measuring the Impact of Information on Development: Overview of an International Research Program." [http://www.idrc.ca.books.focus/783/mcconn.html]. 11 February 2000.

McConnell International. 2000. Risk E-Business: Seizing the Opportunity of Global E-Readiness. [http://www.mcconnellinternational.com/ereadiness/EreadinessReport.htm]. 30 January 2001.

Narayan, Deepa. 1999. Can Anyone Hear Us? Voices from 47 Countries. Poverty Group, World Bank. Washington, D.C.

NASS (National Academy of Social Sciences). 1998. "Fostering Research on the Economic and Social Impacts of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop." [http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/edi/summary.html]. 11 February 2000.

Nshimbi, Isabel. 2000. "COMESA's Role in Information Technology and Telecoms." African Internet Summit. June 2000. The Gambia.

Norris, Pippa. 2000. Digital Divide?

Norrish, Pat. 1999. "Radio and Video for Development." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0027.htm]. 14 November 2000.

NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration), U. S. Department of Commerce. 1999. Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide.

NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration), U. S. Department of Commerce. 2000. Falling Through the Net: Towards Digital Inclusion. A Report on Americans' Access to Technology Tools.

NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration), U. S. Department of Commerce. 2000. Falling Through the Net II: New Data on the Digital Divide.

O’Farrell, C. and Norish, P. 1999. “Information and Communication Technologies (ITCs) for Sustainable Livlihoods: Preliminary Study.” [http://www.rdg.ac.uk/AERDD/AERDD/csds.htm]

OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Council of Europe. 2000. OECD and the World Economy, Doc. 8804, Science, Technology and Industry Outlook.

OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development). 1998. Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 1998. Orbicom (International Network of UNESCO Chairs and Associates in Communications). 1999. Information Society: Crises in the Making? Diagnostic and Strategies for Intervention in Seven World Regions. Montreal.

Pearson, Daniel. 1999. "StarMedia's Foundation Tackles Latin American Digital Divide." [http:// pnnonline.org/foundations/starmedia0328.cfm]. 14 November 2000.

Persaud, Avinash. 2001. "The Knowledge Gap." Foreign Affairs. March/April 2001.

Peters, Teresa. 2001. "Comparison of E-Readiness Assessment Models." [http://www.bridges/ereadiness/comparison.html].

Possebon, S. 2000. Forty Years in Four. International Telecommunication Union.

Press, L. 2001. Professor of Computer Information Systems. California State University. Consultation.

Richardson, Don. 1996. "The Internet and Rural Development: Recommendations for Strategy and Activity." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDDO/execsum.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2000. The Age of Access: How the Shift from Ownership to Access is Transforming Capitalism.

Rodrik, Dani. 1997. Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Institute for International Economics. Washington, D.C.

Rodrik, Dani. 1999. The New Global Economy and Developing Countries: Making Openness Work. Overseas Development Council Policy Essay N24. Washington, D.C.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2000. "Humanity's Hopes and Risks at the Turn of the Millennium." Keynote Speech. Forum 2000 Prague Conference.

Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom.

Shapiro, C. and Varian, H. 1999. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy.

Smith, Bailey, and Brynjolfsson. 1999. Market Structure, Competition, and the Role of Small Business: Understanding Digital Markets.

Torero, Maximo. 2000. The Access and Welfare Impacts of Telecommunications Technology in Peru. ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy. Bonn.

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). 2000. Building Confidence: Electronic Commerce and Development.

UNDP (United Nations Development Program). 2000. Choices: The Human Development Magazine. December 2000. [http://www.undp.org/].

UNDP (United Nations Development Program). 2000. Human Development Report 2000. [http://www.undp.org/hdro/].

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization). 1996. "Information and Communication Technologies in Development: A UNESCO Perspective." Contribution to the Inter-Agency Project on Universal Access to Basic Communication and Information Services. Paris.

United Nations. 2000. United Nations Millennium Declaration. [http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration].

United States Internet Council. 2000. State of the Internet 2000. [http://usic.wslogic.com]. 30 November 2000.

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). 2000. Romania: Internet for Economic Development Assessment.

USIA (United States Information Agency). 1998. "Intellectual Property Rights in the Developing World: Challenges and Opportunities." Economic Perspectives. May 1998.

Wilson, E. and Rodriguez, F. 1999. Are Poor Countries Losing the Information Revolution? infoDev Working Paper. Washington, D.C. [http://www.infodev.org/library/wilsonrodriguez.doc].

WITSA (World Information Technology and Services Alliance). 2000. Digital Planet 2000: The Global Information Economy.

World Bank. 2000. Information for Development Program Annual Report. Washington, D.C.

World Bank. 2000. The Networking Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. infoDev Working Paper. Washington, D.C. [http://www.infodev.org/library/NetworkingRevolution.pdf].

World Bank. 1998. World Development Report 1998/1999: Knowledge for Development. Washington, D.C.

World Bank. 1999. World Development Report 1999/2000. Washington, D.C.

World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. Washington, D.C.

WRI (World Resources Institute). 2001. "Digital Dividend Case Studies." Forthcoming May 2001.

Health

Analysys. 2000. The Network Revolution and the Developing World: Final Report for World Bank and infoDev.

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of the United Nations). 2000. The Role of Information Technology in the Context of a Knowledge-Based Economy.

HealthNet. 2000. Management interviews and project reports. [http://www.healthnet.org].

IDRC (International Development Research Center). 1996. Measuring the Effects of Information on Development.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 1999. Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development.

Lediard, Mark. 2001. Board Member of SATELLIFE. Interview.

Riccio, R. and Eliazar, K. 2000. "Final Project Report for The Regional Information Technology Training Center (RITTC)." An infoDev Project by SATELLIFE and SATELLIFE HealthNet Kenya.

Riccio, Rebecca. 2000. SATELLIFE and the HealthNet Experience: Lessons from a Decade of Service to the African Health Community. Prepared for International Development Research Center.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1999. Human Development Report 1999. Oxford University Press.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. The World Health Report.

Education

AVU (African Virtual University). 1998. "African Virtual University: Pilot Phase Operation." [http://physinfo.ulb.ac.be/!UVA!/AVU_pilot_phase.html]. 20 February 2001.

Bagwandeen, Bojuwoye, and Matobako. 1999. "Assuring Quality Through Study Materials in Distance Education in South Africa." Papers Presented at the 1st National NADEOSA Conference. [http://www.saide.org.za/nadeosa/conference1999/bagwandeen.htm].

Braga, Carlos. 1996. Harnessing Information for Development: A Proposal for World Bank Group Strategy. Washington, D.C.

Cisco Networking Academy Statistics. 2001. [http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/edu/academy]. 2 March 2001.

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of the United Nations). 2000. The Role of Information Technology in the Context of a Knowledge-Based Economy.

Hawley, Steven. 2000. "Technology and Urban Education." Digital Divide Network. [http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/cyberstars2.adp]. 14 November 2000.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 1999. Challenges to the Network: Internet for Development.

OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development). 2000. Schooling for Tomorrow: Learning to Bridge the Digital Divide.

OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development). 2000. "Tertiary Education in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities." Presentation in Paris, 11-13 September 2000.

Okuni, Akim. 2000. "Higher Education Through the Internet: Expectations, Reality and Challenges of the African Virtual University." [http://www.dse.de/zeitschr/de200-4.htm]. 13 March 2001.

Osin, L. 1998. Computers in Education in Developing Countries: Why? How? Education and Technology Series.

Perez, Juan Carlos. 2000. "StarMedia to Wire Public Schools in LatAm to Net." IDG News Service/Latin America Bureau. 15 May. [http://www.idg.net/idgns/2000/05/15/StarMediaToWirePublicSchoolsIn.shtml].

PROBE Team (Public Report on Basic Education). 1999. Public Report on Basic Education in India. Oxford University Press.

Web-Based Education Commission to the President and the Congress of the United States. 2000. The Power of the Internet for Learning: Moving from Promise to Practice.

World Bank. 2000. Educational Change in Latin America and the Caribbean: A World Bank Strategy Paper. [http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/LAC]. 20 March 2001.

World Bank. 2000. The Networking Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. infoDev Working Paper. Washington, D.C.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization). 2000. World Communication and Information Report.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization). 2000. World Education Report 2000: The Right to Education: Towards Education for All Throughout Life.

World Bank. 1999. "Africa Virtual University Project: A World Bank Distance Education Project in South Saharan Africa." [http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~univghana/avuproject.htm].

Economic Opportunity

Accenture. 2000. Internet Enabled Job Creation: A Fact-based Report on How New Technologies and eCommerce Are Enabling New Job Creation.

Bayes, von Braum, and Akhter. 1999. Village Pay Phones and Poverty Reduction: Insights from a Grameen Phone Initiative in Bangladesh. ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy. Bonn.

Benjamin, Peter. 2000. "African Experience with Telecenters." [http://www.isoc.org/oti/articles/1100/Benjamin.html]. 4 April 2001.

Escobedo, Hani, and Romero. 2000. "LINCOS Bohechio Investigation Results." 15 September.

Hammond, Allen. 2001. CIO and Senior Scientist at the World Resources Institute. Interview.

Lal, K. 1999. Information Technology and Exports: A Case Study of Indian Garments Manufacturing Enterprises. ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy. Bonn. [http://www.zef.de/download/zef_dp/zef_dp15-99.pdf].

Ledgerwood, Joanna. 1999. Sustainable Banking for the Poor: An Institutional and Financial Perspective. Washington, D.C.

McDonald, Mark. 2000. "Computers in Concrete Bring Internet to Slums." San Jose Mercury News. 12 August. [http://www.niit.com/Press%20Article/Article83.htm]. 14 March 2001.

Otero, M. and Rhyne, E. 1994. The New World of Microenterprise Finance: Building Healthy Financial Institutions for the Poor. Kumarian Press.

Salcedo, Daniel. 2001. Founder and CEO of PEOPLink. Interview.

Empowerment and Participation

Analysis. 2000. The Network Revolution and the Developing World: Final Report for World Bank and infoDev.

Anderson, Crowder, Dion and Truelove. 1999. "Applying the Lessons of Participatory Communication and Training to Rural Telecentres." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDan0010.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Braga, Carlos. 1996. Harnessing Information for Development: A Proposal for World Bank Group Strategy. Washington, D.C.

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of the United Nations). 2000. The Role of Information Technology in the Context of a Knowledge-Based Economy.

Ernberg, Johan. 1999. "Empowering Communities in the Information Society: An International Perspective." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0042.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Hawley, Steven. 2000. "Cyberstars and HELP: Urban Youth Empowerment." Digital Divide Network. [http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/cyberstars.adp]. 14 November 2000.

Moetsabi, Titus. 1999. "Participatory Approaches for Promoting Rural Connectivity." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0030.htm]. 14 November 2000.

Richardson, Don. 1999. "Rural Telecommunication Services and Stakeholder Participation." [http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/CDdirect/CDre0025.htm]. 14 November 2000.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1999. "Global Changes Affecting the Poor." [http://www.sdnp.undp.org/ww/women-poverty/msg00172.html].

World Bank. 2000. The Networking Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. infoDev Working Paper. Washington, D.C.

Environment

ADB (Asian Development Bank). 1997. "ADB Helps Prepare Indonesia's Network on Biodiversity Information." [http://www.adb.org/Documents/News/1997/nr1997096.asp].

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. "National Water Quality Inventory: 1996 Report to Congress." [http://www.epa.gov/OW/resources/brochure/broch2.html].

GFW (Global Forest Watch). 2000. "An Overview of Logging in Cameroon." [http://www.globalforestwatch.org/English/Cameroon/index.htm].

Hammond, Allen. 2001. "Digitally Empowered Development." Foreign Affairs. March/April 2001.

Murrell, T. 2000. "Precision Agriculture: What Have We Learned So Far and What Needs Exist?" [http://www.farmresearch.com/ifafs/needs/scott.htm].

WRI (World Resources Institute). 2001. "Electronics Innovation for Climate Protection." [http://www.igc.org/wri/cpi/carbon/displays.htm].

Brazil

Botelho, Dedrick, Kraemer and Tigre. 1999. "From Industry Protection to Industry Promotion: IT Policy in Brazil".
[http://www.crito.uci.edu/git/publications/pdf/brazil-case-10-99.pdf].

CDI (The Committee to Democratize Information Technology). 2001. "Closing the Digital Divide in Brazil: Sustainable Computer Schools Provide a Virtual Highway Out of Poverty." [http:// www.globalpartnerships.org/brazil.asp].

CNet. 2000. "PCs for the Brazilian Masses." 31 August. [http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1006-200-2661582.html?tag=st.ne.1430735.ni].

DasGupta, Rowena. 2001. "Cheap Computers Bridge Brazil's Digital Divide." [http://www.ecountries.com/the_Americas/brazil/news/2887813]. 12 February 2001.

Dunning, T., et al. 1999. “Brazil: Internet Development for Whom?”
[http://www.stanford.edu/~muse/brazil/].

eCountries. 2001. Brazil Country Profile. [http://www.ecountries.com/the_americas/brazil]. 12 February 2001.

Hart, Daniela K. 2000. "Combating Technological Apartheid in Brazilian Favelas." [http://www.changemakers.net/journal/00may/hart.cfm].

Lipschultz, David. 2001. "Advanced Online Banking, Born of Necessity." New York Times.

Lipschultz, David. 2000. "Brazil Unplugged." Red Herring. 19 December. [http://www.redherring.com/index.asp?layout=story_generic&doc_id=RH1440015544].

Ministry of Science and Technology. 2000. “Information Society in Brazil—Green Book.” [http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/ingles/].

RNP General Coordination. 2000. "Information Society Benefited by RNP2 Project."
[http://www.rnp.br/noticias_en/2000/not-000804.html].

Takahashi, Tadao. 2001. "Digital Inclusion: Impact and Challenges of the Networked Economy for Developing Countries." Presentation at International Policy Dialogue. 23-24 January 2001. Hotel Intercontinental. Berlin.

Costa Rica

Bate, Peter. 1999. "Costa Rica Brews a New Blend of Java: A Country Invests in Its Budding Software Industry." IDB Magazine Online. September-October. [http://www.iadb.org/exr/IDB/stories/1999/eng/e1099f1.htm].

Carl, T. 2000. "Costa Rica Looks to High Tech." Popular Science Magazine. September 2000. [http://www.popsci.com/news/09112000_costarica.html].

Costa Rica Investment Board. "Investment Opportunities." [http://www.cinde.or.cr/inv_oppf.html].

ICRT (International Campaign for Responsible Technology). 1999. "Costa Rica Lures Intel and Microsoft." [http://www.svtc.org/listserv/leter12a.htm ]. 6 February 2001.

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2001. "The Potentials of Leapfrogging in Costa Rica." World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy.

Spar, D. 1998. "Whale in a Swimming Pool." IFC Impact Summer 1998. [http://www.ifc.org/publications/pubs/impact_summer98/m8feature2/m8feature2.html].

US Department of State. 2000. Country Commercial Guide: Costa Rica. [http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/2000/wha/costarica_CCG2000.pdf].

Estonia

Abbate, J. 2000. "The Internet in Estonia: How Did a Small Post-Soviet Country Become a World Leader in Internet Use?" [http://www.wam.umd.edu/~abbate/Estonia/EestiNet/index.html].

Accenture. 2000. Reconnecting Europe.

eCountries. 2001. Estonia Country Profile. [http://www.ecountries.com]. 12 February 2001.

ESIS (European Survey of Information Society). 2000. Estonia: Heart of the Baltic Region. [http://www.esis.ee/it/IT_Solution.pdf].

ITU (International Telecommunication Union). "Telecottages in Estonia." [http://www.itu.int/ITU-DUniversalAccess/casestudies/estonia.htm].

Meier, Andrew. 2000. “Estonia Online: The Farmers and Fishermen of this Tiny Baltic State are Trading Their Plows for the Internet.” [http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/eeurope/field/estonia.html].

McConnell International. 2000. Risk E-Business: Seizing the Opportunity of Global E-Readiness. [http://www.mcconnellinternational.com/ereadiness/EreadinessReport.htm]. 30 January 2001.

Perera, R. 2000. "Tiny Estonia Sets Pace in e-Government." IDG News Service\Berlin Bureau. November 20. [http://www.idg.net/idgns/2000/11/20/SPOTLIGHTTinyEstoniaSetsPace.shtml].

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1999. Estonian Human Development Report.UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2000. The Estonian Tiger Leap into the 21st Century. [http://www.esis.ee/ist2000/background/tiigrihype ].

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2000. "Estonia's Tiger Leap to Technology." Choices: The Human Development Magazine. June 2000. [http://www.undp.org/dpa/choices/2000/june/p10-12.htm].

India

Bhatnagar, S. and Robert Schware (eds). 1999. Information and Communication Technology in Rural Development: Case Studies from India. Washington, D.C.

Digital Partners. 2000. Poverty Alleviation in the Digital Age: Applying Information Technology for Economic and Social Development in India.

eCountries. 2001. India Country Profile. [http://www.ecountries.com/south_asia/india/research/profile]. 9 February 2001.

Goth, N. 1997. "Bottlenecked in Bangalore" Red Herring Magazine. February 1. [http://www.redherring.com/index.asp?layout=story&channel=70000007&doc_id=410016241].

Government of India. 1998. National Task Force on IT and Software Development. [http://it-taskforce.nic.in/].

Guha Ray, S. 2000. "The Best And The Brightest: Near-Complete Autonomy and a Fanatical Focus on Quality Make the IITs the Cradle of Some of the World's Best Talent." Outlook India. May 29. [http://www.outlookindia.com/full.asp?fodname=20000529&fname=cover%5Fstory&sid=1].

Kamdar, M. 2000. Reinventing India: Why Digital Partners' India Initiative Can Make a Critical Difference.

Lateef, A. 1997. "Linking Up with the Global Economy: A Case Study of the Bangalore Software Industry." ILO. [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inst/papers/1997/dp96/].

Kumar, N. 2001. Life at Work in the Information Economy: Developing Countries in International Division of Labour in Software and Service Industry. International Labour Organization.

Nasscom and McKinsey & Co. 1999. Findings of Nasscom McKinsey Study: Indian IT Strategies.

Thackara, J. 2000. "In The Bubble: India." [http://www.doorsofperception.com/projects/in_the_bubble/india_in_bubble.html].

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1999. "Human Development Through Human Resourcefulness." [http://hdrc.undp.org.in/HDR99india.htm].

Warrier, S. 1999. "Internet Unplugged." Interview with Ashok Jhunjhunwala of the Indian Institute of Technology Madras on his development of a wireless system to access the Internet. [http://www.rediff.com/computer/1999/jun/16jhunjh.htm].

World Bank. 2000. India Country Brief 2000. [http://wbln1018.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf/India].

Malaysia

Debreceny, R. 1999. "Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor." [http://www.anu.edu.au/mail-archives/link/link9701/0143.html]. 13 February 2001.

eCountries. 2001. Malaysia Country Profile. [http://www.ecountries.com/southeast_asia/malaysia]. 12 February 2001.

Hassan, Mohammed. 1998. "Malaysia Takes Off into Cyberspace?" [http://www.muslimedia.com/archives/sea98/mycyber.htm].

Inagami, Takeshi. 1998. "Labour Market Policies in Asian Countries: Diversity and Similarity Among Singapore, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea and Japan." [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/publ/etp34.htm].

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2001. "National Report on the ICT Sector in Malaysia." World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy.

Kiong, Wong Yuk. 1997. "Malaysia: Skills for Global Competitiveness." [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/skills/training/publ/Malaysia.htm].

Matthews, Julian. 1999. "Should the Multimedia Super Corridor Be Reviewed?" [http://Malaysia.cnet.com/internet/guidebook/mscreview/]. 13 February 2000.

McLaughlin, Kevin. 2000. "Whatever Happened to the Malaysia Super Corridor?" Business 2.0. [http://www.business2.com/content/channels/ebusiness/2000/06/22/15074] .

NewsBytes. 1998. "Malaysia's Super Corridor Takes Root."

NITC Malaysia (National Information Technology Council Malaysia). "Multimedia Super Corridor-MSC." [http://www.nitc.org.my/external_link/msc.html].

Oakley, Tom. 1998. "Information Technology in Malaysia: Privatization and Deregulation." [http://www.american.edu/initeb/to2115a/privatiz.htm].

Yap, Jimmy. 1998. "Is Malaysia's Super Corridor in Jeopardy?" [http://Malaysia.cnet.com/news/1998/11/05/19981105ae.html]. 13 February 2001.

South Africa

AISI (African Information Society Initiative). 2000. National ICT Profile: South Africa. [http://www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi/nici/Documents_English/southpub.en.doc]. 2 April 2001.

Alcorta, Ludovico. 1996. "The Information Revolution and Economic and Social Exclusion: The Experiences of Burkina Faso, South Africa and Tanzania." Special Series of UNU/INTECH Discussion Paper 2002.

Economist Newspaper Group. 2001. "A Survey: South Africa." The Economist, 24 February.

Hodge, J. 2000. "Liberalizing Communication Services in South Africa." World Trade Organization Workshop.

GCIS (Government Communications and Information System). 2001. "GCIS Training Programme in Communications." [http://www.gcis.gov.za/media/index.html].

IDRC (International Development Research Center). 2000. National Strategy South Africa: IDRC Study/Acacia Initiative. [http://www.idrc.ca/acacia/outputs/op-sastr.htm]. 3 March 2001.

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2001. "Information and Communications Technology in a Middle Income Country—South Africa." World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy.

NICI (National Information and Communications Infrastructure). 2000. Country Profile: South Africa. [http://www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi/nici/South%20Africa/southab.htm].

SAITIS (South African Industry Strategy Product). 2000. SAITIS Baseline Studies: A Survey of the IT Industry and Related Jobs and Skills in South Africa. [http://www.saitis.co.za/studies/jobs_skills/].

SAITIS (South African Industry Strategy Product). 2000. South African ICT Sector Development Framework. [www.saitis.co.za ].

Tanzania

AISI (African Information Society Initiative). 2000. National ICT Profile: Tanzania. [http://www2.sn.apc.org/africa]. 26 March 2001.

Alcorta, Ludovico. 1996. "The Information Revolution and Economic and Social Exclusion: The Experiences of Burkina Faso, South Africa and Tanzania." Special Series of UNU/INTECH Discussion Paper #2002.

CyberTwiga. 2000. "Tanzanian Economy, Communications & Transportation" [http://www.twiga.com/about_tz/content/econ_comm_trans.html].

Fine, J. and Rostenne, J. 1999. Connectivity and Commerce: Accelerating Diffusion of the Internet in Uganda and Tanzania.

Gibbon, P. 1999. Privatization and Foreign Direct Investment in Mainland Tanzania, 1992-98. Center for Development Research.

NICI (National Information and Communications Infrastructure). 2000. Country Profile: Tanzania. [http://www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi/nici/tanzania/tanzab.htm].

Tanzania eSecretariat. 2000.[http://www.ethinktanktz.org/esecretariat/whoweare.htm].

Tanzanian National Environmental Management Council. 1998. "National Environmental Information Management Framework."

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). 2000. Country Reports: Tanzania.

USAID (United States Agency for International Development) Leland Initiative. 2000. "Status of the Leland Initiative in Tanzania." [http://www.usaid.gov/leland/tanindex.htm].

World Bank. 2000. Tanzania Country Brief 2000. [http://www.worldbank.org/afr/tz2.htm].

Web Sites

Acacia Initiative: www.idrc.ca/acacia

African Information Society Initiative (AISI): www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi

Africa Virtual University (AVU): www.avu.org

Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP): www.apdip.net

Asia Pacific Networking Group: www.apng.org

Asian Development Bank (ADB): www.adb.org

Bellanet: www.bellanet.org

Benton Foundation: www.benton.org

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA): www.acdi-cida.gc.ca

Center for International Development at Harvard University (CID): www.cid.harvard.edu

Center for International Research on Communication (CIRCIT): www.circit.rmit.edu.au

Charity@Incubator: www.charityatincubator.org

Children's Partnership Online: www.childrenspartnership.org

Cisco Networking Academy: www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/edu/academy

Committee to Democratize Information Technology (CDI): www.globalpartnerships.org/brazil.asp

CyberEcoles: www.cyberecoles.org

Digital Bridges: www.digital-bridges.org

Digital Partners: www.digitalpartners.org

eCountries: www.ecountries.com

Educor: www.educor.co.za

European Survey of Information Society (ESIS): www.esis.ee

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: www.fao.org/sd/index_en.htm

French Institute of Research and Development: www.ird.fr

Global Forest Watch (GFW): www.globalforestwatch.org

Global Information Infrastructure Commission (GIIC): www.giic.org

Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP): www.globalknowledge.org

Grameen Phone: www.grameen.org

GreenNet: www.gn.apc.org

Greenstar: www.greenstar.org

HealthNet (SATELLIFE): www.healthnet.org

Hewlett-Packard World e-Inclusion Program: www.hp.com/e-inclusion

Info 21 at UNDP: www.undp.org/info21

Information for Development Program of the World Bank Group (infoDev): www.infodev.org

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB): www.iadb.org

International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT): www.svtc.org/icrt

International Development Research Center (IDRC): www.idrc.ca

International Institute for Sustainable Development: www.iisd.ca

International Labour Organization (ILO): www.ilo.org

International Telecommunication Union (ITU): www.itu.int

Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA): www.jica.go.jp

Leland Initiative: www.usaid.gov/regions/afr/leland

LINCOS and Digital Nations: www.lincos.net

Madhya Pradesh State Initiative: www.madhyapradesh-india.org

Media for Development and Democracy (DevMedia): www.devmedia.org

Millennium Project of Japan (IT21): www.kantei.go.jp

National Information Technology Agenda (NITA): www.nitc.org.my/nita

National Information and Communications Infrastructure (NICI): www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi/nici

National Institutes for Information Technology (NIIT): www.niit.com

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA): www.ntia.doc.gov

Netherlands Institute for Communication and Development: www.iicd.org

Neighborhood Webworks: www.neighborhoodwebworks.org

Partnerships in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century (Paris 21): www.paris21.org

PEOPLink: www.peoplink.org

Presidential IED Initiative: www.usaid.gov_info_technology/ied

Pride Africa: www.prideafrica.com

SANGONeT Information & Technology: www.sn.apc.org/sangonet/technology

Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSNet): www.sidsnet.org

Softbank Emerging Markets: www.softbank.com

South African Industry Strategy Product (SAITIS): www.saitis.co.za

StarMedia's Initiative for Youth: www.starmedia.com

Sustainable Development Networking Programme: www.sdnp.undp.org

Teledesic: www.teledesic.com

United Nations Development Programme: www.undp.org

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): www.unesco.org

United Nations Information Technology Service (UNITeS): www.unites.org

United States Agency for International Development (USAID): www.usaid.gov

VIATRU: www.viatru.com

Virtual Souk: www.elsouk.com

Women's Networking Support Program: www.gn.apc.org/apcwomen

World Economic Forum: www.weforum.org

World Information Technology and Services Alliance (WITSA): www.witsa.org

World Links for Development: www.worldbank.org/worldlinks

World Resources Institute (WRI): www.wri.org

3Com Urban Challenge: www.3com/urbanchallenge.com

 

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